The JIE Style Guide for Accepted Manuscripts

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                        The Journal of Industrial Ecology StyleGuide for Accepted Manuscripts 

Usage This style guide represents the second part of the two part guidelines for authors for the Journal of Industrial Ecology. It is to be used to adapt a manuscript that has been given preliminary acceptance for publication. We ask that authors please review and edit accepted manuscripts to make them conform to the journal’s style described in this guide. 


General For most matters of style, the Journal of Industrial Ecology (JIE) follows the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), 15th edition. Some universities and other institutions may have access to the online version of CMS at <>. The JIE uses author-date citation style. The official dictionary of the journal is Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition. This dictionary is available online via <> in simplified version (free of charge) or regularversion (paid subscription). 


This guidance document gives common deviations from these standards. In order to keep this document reasonable in length, less frequently encountered style issues have been omitted. The editors and/or copyeditor will correct for these issues when they are encountered.


American Spelling and Usage While international in its content, the journal is American in its spelling and usage. That is, where spelling and usage norms differ among American, European and Australian speakers of English, the American norm should be used for materials to be published in the journal. Thus, use labor and program rather than labour and programme. British spellings should be retained only in quoted material, titles or names (e.g. Ministry of Labour). Similarly, for numbers containing a decimal point, the JIE uses the American style of decimal point (a period) rather than the European style (a comma).  Layout and formatting Please avoid elaborate formatting and layout. The manuscript should not be treated as if it is being prepared for desktop publishing. The general format for articles to be submitted for publication in the Journal of Industrial Ecology is to double space the text in 12 point font. Paragraphs use a 0.5 inch first line indent and text is left justified.




Author Listing


The current style is to list the authors names (first name, middle initial, last name) below the title. The authors’ affiliations are given in an “About the Author” section at the end of the article. The opening page also contains contact information for the corresponding author at the bottom of the page in a section labeled with the “Address correspondence to:” heading.

Address Correspondence to:  The address correspondence to section contains the corresponding author’s name (as it should appear on mailed correspondence) and the mailing address for conventional (postal) mail. The corresponding author’s e-mail address is also given and a URL (web address) can be included if the author so desires. Telephone numbers and FAX numbers are not included in this section.


Keywords Five keywords should be provided for inclusion in the article unless the title contains the term industrial ecology, in which case, six keywords should be provided. The keywords should be common words or phrases that will help readers identify the contents of the article. For information on how optimize discovery by search engines such as Google, please see Editors will make the final decision regarding which keywords to include in order to maintain consistency and facilitate keyword searching.




The manuscript should include an abstract (called a “summary” in the JIE) of the article of no more than 250 words.  Rather than introducing the article, the summary should outline the contents including the results. The summary is especially important as readers will use it to decide whether the read the full text of the article; particular care should be taken with the quality of the writing. 




Sections are indicated by headings rather than numbers. The use of headings and subheadings (to the third level) is encouraged. The appropriate heading level is designated by preceding the heading with the heading level in pointy brackets as in this example:


<heading level 1> Industrial Ecology in Asia


<heading level 2> Japanese Developments


<heading level 3> Research Trends in Japanese Industrial Ecology




Acknowledgements are placed in a section that should follow the concluding remarks of the article and precede the notes and the references. Acknowledgements can include recognition of funders, those who provided assistance or feedback in the preparation of the article.  Disclosures of conflicts of interest should also be included in the acknowledgements.


Supporting Information 

            Appendices, figures, tables, large data sets, software, and video can be provided as supporting information (SI) for the main text of the article.  SIs will be posted on the JIE web site but not published as part of the main article file. Supporting information will be published as submitted and will not be corrected or checked for scientific content, typographical errors or functionality. It will not be available for review prior to publication. All files should be clearly labeled as "Supporting Information" (e.g., use SuppInfo, Supp, in the filename; example - Figure_6_SuppInfo.pdf).  A summary should be provided for each SI at the beginning of the relevant document or file. If references are cited in the SI, a reference list at the end of the supporting information document. References which appear solely in the SI (i.e., not the main text) should not be included the reference list of the main text.SIs should be mentioned (called out in the main text.)




Be sure to include issue numbers for journal articles, publisher location and name (especially for proceedings), and access month and year for web references. Also, use sentence capitalization for article and book titles.


References cited are indicated by in-text citations using the author-date system followed by a reference list giving more complete bibliographic information. The author-date system for in-text citations uses the last name of the work’s author followed by the date with no punctuation. Multiple citations at one point may be in any order. Names of organizations and government agencies are abbreviated in in-text citations without definition. Very short organization names need not be abbreviated. Page numbers are only used for direct quotes and et al. is used for cases of three or more authors.


Here are some examples of in-text citations: 


Wilson (1995) - (If the author is mentioned as part of the text, the citation consists of the date in parentheses) 

(Wilson 1995) 

(Smith 1990, 25–26) - (page numbers are included only for direct quotes)

(Smith and Jones 1997) 

(Smith et al. 1997) - (et al. is used for three or more authors) 

(OECD 1999, 2000; Smith 1990a; Jones 1984, 1985a, 1985b) - (Commas separate multiple references by the same author & the author name is not repeated. Semicolons separate multiple references by different authors. 

(Steiner [1923] 1951) (original publication date in brackets)

The reference list is contained in a section with the level 1 heading References. The references are listed alphabetically by author, separating them by a hanging indent as in the following example (note that for the first author, the initials follow the last name while for subsequent authors, the initials precede the last name): 

Ayres, R. U. and A. Kneese. 1969. Production, consumption and externalities. American Economic Review 59(3): 282–297.

Haberl, H. and S. Geissler. 2000. Cascade utilization of biomass: How to cope with ecological limits to biomass use. Ecological Engineering 16(Suppl.): S111–S121.


Order in Reference List


Entries are alphabetical by author. Multiple entries with the same author(s) are listed according to year. However, entries with the same first author but different successive authors are listed alphabetically as indicated in the following example. 

Smith, A. B. 1995. 

Smith, A. B. 1996. 

Smith, A. B. and E. F. Doe. 1999. 

Smith, A. B., E. F. Doe, and C. D. Jones. 1997.

Smith, A. B. and C. D. Jones. 1995. 

Smith, A. B., C. D. Jones, and E. F. Doe. 1995. 




Titles of journal articles use sentence capitalization and are not italicized or in quotation marks. The title of the journal is spelled out (no abbreviations) and it is italicized with headline capitalization. For journals that use issue numbers, the issue number follows the volume number in parentheses.


Ayres, R. U. and A. Kneese. 1969. Production, consumption and externalities. American Economic Review 59(3): 282–297. 

Haberl, H. and S. Geissler. 2000. Cascade utilization of biomass: How to cope with ecological limits to biomass use. Ecological Engineering 16(Suppl.): S111–S121. 

Wollny, V., G. Dehoust, U.R. Fritsche, and P. Weinem. Comparison of plastic packaging waste management options: Feedstock recycling versus energy recovery in Germany. Journal of Industrial Ecology 5(3): 49-63.


Journal Article with Non-English Title


Non-English titles should be followed by the English translation in brackets. For languages that use a different alphabet, the preferred style is to give the transliterated native title and the English translation, although the English translation is sufficient.

Bittermann, W. 1999. Energiebilanzen 1993–1997. [Energy balances 1993–1997.] Statistische Nachrichten 54(7): 567–578.


Journal Article Published in Parts


Fischer-Kowalski, M. 1998. Society´s metabolism: The intellectual history of materials flow analysis, Part 1: 1860–1970. Journal of Industrial Ecology 2(1): 61–78. 


Journal Article Published Online but Not Yet Assigned to an Issue

            These days, many journals (including the JIE) publish articles online before they are ready to include them in an issue. Wiley calls this Early View but a variety of similar terms are used by other publishers. Articles in this state are considered published but they do not have volume, issue, or page numbers. The digital object identifier (DOI) is used in lieu of the volume, issue, and page number for articles in this state. Please only use the DOI in lieu of the volume, issue, and page number if article has not yet been included in an issue. Otherwise use the volume, issue, and page number. 

Hoornweg, D., P. Bhada-Tata, and C. Kennedy. 2014. Peak waste: When is it likely to occur? Journal of Industrial Ecology DOI: 10.1111/jiec.12165.


Journal Article in Press/Submitted


For “in press” articles, if year of publication is definite, use it and append “In press” to the end of the reference; if the article is definitely in press but the year is not definite, substitute “In press” for year. 

For “submitted” articles, use the date of the most recent manuscript for the year, and put “Submitted for publication.” at the end of the reference.

Krausmann, F. and H. Haberl. 2001. The process of industrialization from an energetic metabolism point of view: Socio-economic energy flows in Austria 1830–1995. Ecological Economics. In press.

Krausmann, F. and H. Haberl. In press. The process of industrialization from an energetic metabolism point of view: Socio-economic energy flows in Austria 1830–1995. Ecological Economics.

Leslie, P. W., J. R. Bindon, and P. T. Baker. 2000. Caloric requirements of human populations: A model. Human Ecology. Submitted for publication.




Book titles use sentence capitalization and are italicized. If more than one publisher location is provided, use only the first location. Include publisher’s state/province or country only if the city is not well known.

Fischer-Kowalski, M., H. Haberl, W. Hüttler, H. Payer, H. Schandl, V. Winiwarter, and H. Zangerl-Weisz. 1997. Socioeconomic metabolism and colonization of nature: Approaches to social ecology. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Fakultas.


Book with a Non-English Title


Non-English titles should be followed by the English translation in brackets. Both the title and the translation are italic. For languages that use a different alphabet, the preferred style is to give the transliterated native title and the English translation, although the English translation is sufficient. 

Matthes, F. 1998. CO2-Vermeidungskosten: Konzept, Potentiale und Grenzen eines Instruments für politische Entscheidungen. [CO2-reduction costs: Concept, opportunities and limits of an instrument to support political decisions.] Berlin: Öko-Institut.


Book with Organization as Author and Publisher


Start with abbreviation of author name (if abbreviation was used in the in-text citation), followed by spelled-out organization name in parentheses; use abbreviation as publisher name. Very short organization names do not need to be abbreviated in in-text citations and the reference list. In subsequent citations having the exact same author, use only the abbreviation for the author. 

IEA (International Energy Agency). 1992. Energy statistics of OECD countries 1989–1990. Paris: IEA, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. 

IEA. 1995. Energy balances of OECD countries 1992–1993. Paris: IEA, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.


Subsequent Editions of a Book


Winston, W. L. 1997. Operations research: Applications and algorithms. Third edition. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing. 

Lotka, A. J. 1956. Elements of mathematical biology. 1924. Second reprint edition, original title, Elements of physical biology. New York: Dover Publications.


Edited Book


Include the names of all editors of the book when the citation is to the entire book. 

Phillips, L., ed. 2000. The BSE inquiry. London: The Stationery Office.


Chapter in a Book


Include the names of the editors of the book in which the chapter appears. If more than two editors, et al. may be used. The title of the book is italicized and the title of the chapter is not. 

Grhnbhhel, C.M. 1999. Acting as a chameleon: Material flows of a subsistence economy in northeast Thailand. In Ecologizing social metabolism: Designing scenarios for sustainable materials management, edited by R. Kleijn et al. Proceedings of a ConAccount workshop, CML report 148. Leiden, the Netherlands: Leiden University.


One Volume in a Series


Include the names of editors of the series. If more than two editors, et al. may be used. 

Ayres, R. U. and L. W. Ayres. 1998. Economy-wide applications of mass-balance principles to materials and waste. Accounting for resources, Vol. 1, edited by J. N. Schorr. Northampton, UK: Edward Elgar.


Chapter in One Volume of a Series


Please include the names of editors of the series. 

Kramer, D. A. 1998. Nitrogen. In Minerals in agriculture. Metals and minerals, Vol. 6, edited by U.S. Bureau of Mines. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 

Ayres, R. U. and U. E. Simonis. 1994. Restructuring industry for sustainable development. In Industrial metabolism, edited by T. Fujimoto.University of Nogura Department of Natural Resources publication no. 35. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.




Gielen, D. J. and J. Pieters. 1999. Instruments and technologies for climate change policy: An integrated energy and materials systems modeling approach. ENV/EPOC/GEEI (99)15. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. 

Ayres, R. U. and U. E. Simonis. 1993. Restructuring industry for sustainable development. University of Nogura Department of Natural Resources publication no. 35. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.


Published Proceedings


As a Journal


Aramaki, T., R. Sugimoto, K. Hanaki, and T. Matsuo. 1999. Design of reclaimed wastewater reuse system using GIS-based water balance model in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Asian Pacific Regional Conference on Water Quality 1: 137–142.


As a Book


Brunner, P. H. and T. Lahner. 1993. Buildings as reservoirs of materials: Their reuse and implications for future construction design, demolition and reuse of concrete and masonry. In RILEM proceedings, Vol. 23. London: Hill and James.




Knight, P. 1990. A rebirth of pioneering spirit.  Times [London], 14 November, section I: 15.


Newspaper Article with Anonymous Author


DuPont in environmental move. 1989. Financial Times [London], 5 May, 26. 



Sachs, Jeffrey D. 2010. Breaking the climate debate logjam. Scientific American March, 22- 23.


Magazine Article with Anonymous Author


Begin the entry with the title. Use the title (abbreviated, if appropriate) in the in-text citation.  

Polycarbonaatfles in de winkel. [The rise of the polycarbonate bottle.] 1996. Kunststof en Rubber April, 21–24 

(Polycarbonaatfles in de winkel. 1996)


Paper Presented at a Conference


Favrat, D. and F. Staine. 1999. Energy and environmental considerations in process integration. Paper presented at PI’99 International Conference on Process Integration, 7–10 March, Copenhagen. 

Itagaki A., H. Iida, and H. Okamura. 1998. Meteorological analysis for suitable design of photovoltaic power generation systems: Preparation of meteorological data (METPV) which is useful to simulate output from PV systems. Paper presented at Second World Conference and Exhibition on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, 6–10 July, Vienna.


Ph.D. or Master’s  Thesis or Dissertation 

Either “Ph.D. thesis” or “Ph.D. dissertation” may be used.  

Gielen, D. J. 1999. Materialising dematerialisation: Integrated energy and materials systems engineering for greenhouse gas emission mitigation. Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands. 

Sonora, A. T. 2000. Meteorological analysis for suitable design of photovoltaic power generation systems. Master’s thesis, Columbia University, New York.


Working Paper


Ayres, R. U., V. Norberg-Bohm, and L. W. Ayres. 1993. Industrial metabolism of nitrogen. Working paper, International Foundation for Economic Sustainability, Fontainebleau, France.


Web Site


Required information includes author (which may be the name of an organization or person), year (which is the year of electronic publication), URL (no italics, delete “http://” if “www” is part of the address), month and year last accessed. Include additional information if it is useful. If the date of electronic publication is not obtainable, use the year of access as the year of publication. 

DuPont. 1999. 1999 Progress data. In Sustainable Growth: 1999 Progress Report. Paris, IL: DuPont. Accessed 4 October 2000. 

EDF (Environmental Defense Fund). 1999. About the chemicals: By industrial sector. Accessed September 2000. 

Global Alliance. 2000. Accessed January 2000.


Personal Communication


Personal communications are included in the reference list as ordinary author-date entries. The date of communication of the information is preferred, but at least the year should be provided. The person’s title or the division of the company should be included. 

Van Well, M. 1997. Personal communication with M. van Well, Flexible Industrial Packaging Division. Ligtermoed B.V., Ridderkerk, the Netherlands, 4 August 1997.


Miscellaneous Reference Issues 

Never use ibid.    

Use postal codes for the states of U.S. publisher cities for any U.S. city that is not well known. Although Washington is well known, include the DC to avoid ambiguity. 

Include country (spelled out, except UK) for any foreign city that is not well known. 

U.S. Congress (keep periods).


Appendices In some cases, it makes sense to present information relevant to an article in an appendix (or in rare cases, several appendices). The JIE publishes most appendices as supporting information documents rather than as an integrated part of the main article (see the earlier section on supporting information). If this is the case, the appendix should be placed before the notes and after the acknowledgements. Continue the numbering sequence for any figures and tables from the body of the article.



Combined number of tables and figures should not exceed eight. 

Artwork, figures and tables: Please be prepared to provide, upon acceptance of your article for publication, electronic files of each figure as separate files in any of the preferred file formats: Encapsulated PostScript (EPS), Portable Document Format (PDF), and Tagged Image Format (TIFF). We suggest that line art be saved as EPS files. Alternately, these may be saved as PDF files at resolution of 600 dots per inch (dpi) or better at final size. Tone art, or photographic images, should be saved as TIFF files with a resolution of 300 dpi at final size. For combination figures, or artwork that contains both photographs and labeling, we recommend saving figures as EPS files, or as PDF files with a resolution of 600 dpi or better at final size. Please note that your figure will typically be published at a one- or two-column size. Especially wide figures are sometimes rotated and published with a landscape orientation. More detailed information on the submission of electronic artwork can be found at

Figure numbers (e.g., “Figure 1”) and captions should be removed from the figure files and provided separately.  (Files should be named to indicate figure numbers.) Figure numbers and captions can be provided when uploading the files in ScholarOne. Subfigures should each be provided in a separate file as well, with the designation “(a)”, “(b)”, etc. added to the corner of the subfigure.)  All words should be spelled using American English and graphs should have axis labels including units of measurement. 

All figures should be mentioned (“called out”) in the text.  Do not capitalize “figure” in running text unless it begins a sentence. The figure caption uses sentence-style capitalization with a period at end. Figure captions may start with a sentence fragment. Remaining text should be full sentences. If permissions are needed for a figure being reprinted from a copyrighted source, the permission document should uploaded as a separate file in ScholarOne Manuscripts and an appropriate attribution line must been included in the figure caption. Figure source notes are indicated in at the end of the caption. Source: Text of source note.  We request that all acronyms or abbreviations that appear in the figures & tables defined in the figure caption/table footnotes.



The preferred format for tables is the Microsoft Word table format. That is, tables generated using the table tool within Microsoft Word. Less desirable but also acceptable is tab- delimited format. Also acceptable are tables imported from Microsoft Excel. The table title uses sentence-style capitalization with no period at the end. Do not capitalize “table” in running text unless it begins a sentence. 

            All table columns with exception to the leftmost should contain headings.

Tables may not have parts (e.g., table 2a, b). Tables may have footnotes that appear in the following order: table source note comes first (Source: Text of source note.); then general note (Note: Text of note.); then specific notes (each on a separate line) denoted by superscripted letters or numbers or by standard symbols; then probability notes, denoted by asterisks. Include leading zeros in quantities less than 1 and use the American style (period) of decimal point rather than the European style (comma). Definitions in footnotes are formatted with an equals sign and separated by a semicolon: Categories of emission stress: TW = toxicity to water; A = acidification; N = nutrification; GCC = global climate change.



Except for notes that apply to a specific table or figure, notes are endnotes (instead of footnotes). Notes that do apply to a specific figure or table are placed below the figure or table and are not a part of the note numbering sequence. Avoid extracts, tables and paragraphing in notes. Please minimize the use of notes by integrating the content of the note into the body of the text, where possible.


International and Interdisciplinary Usage


The journal is an international publication, so references to “us” and “them” should be avoided in favor of specific references to “the European approach”, “U.S. environmental laws” or comparably clear usage.


Some Specific Details


Above and below are acceptable when referring to parts of the article, but not to tables and figures. 

Use article instead of paper. 

Avoid beginning sentences with however, there is/was, and there are/were. 

Reserve while and since for temporal use. 

Avoid contractions. 

Use serial comma. 

Singular possessives indicated by ’s (Mr. Jones’s shoes), plural possessives by only (the boys’ shoes). 

No comma before Jr. in a name. 

Use each other when referring to two; use one another when referring to more than two.



The journal’s general rule is that short, easy-to-read terms should not be abbreviated unless that is the convention and a term should not be abbreviated unless it is used at least three times in the body of the article or two times in the summary. If an abbreviation is going to be used, it should be placed in parentheses following the first use of the full term. For the purposes of defining abbreviations in this way, please treat the summary and the body of the article as separate entities as they are often read independently. That is, if the abbreviation is to be used in both the summary and the body of the article, include the abbreviation after the first use of the term in both places. Use the abbreviation thereafter throughout the article. 

Some terms in the field are well known or even better known as abbreviations. These should be spelled out and abbreviated at first mention (in the usual way) and the abbreviation used thereafter regardless of the number of mentions. (See list of common abbreviations.) 

Avoid use of etc., i.e., e.g. in the body of the text. They are acceptable within parentheses or in tables where space is limited but in running text, use the corresponding English phrase: and so forth, and so on, that is, for example

Always spell out versus. 

A sentence may begin with an abbreviation. 

Abbreviations may contain lowercase letters.



Lowercase terms that are followed by an abbreviation except for words that are proper nouns: insights from total quality management (TQM); concepts with names such as “design for environment” (DfE); the Tree-Marking Paint Stewardship Association (TSA).

Abbreviations may contain lowercase letters. 

Capitalize titles and headings per CMS 7.126–7.128. 

Capitalize names and terms per CMS chapter 7. 

Capitalize a full sentence after a colon (contra CMS).

Words used as variables are roman and capped headline style: Environmental Impact = Population × Affluence × Technology




See also Numbers, Numerals, and Unit Quantities, and Italics, Roman, and Bold. 

Displayed equations must be numbered if they are cited in the text. Those not cited in the text may be numbered or not; follow the author. 

All numbered equations must be set as displayed equations. 

Equation number in a displayed equation: a + b = c   (3) 

Equation number(s) in running text: “From equations (3) and (4) we can derive….”; “From equations (3–5) we can derive….”; We then derive (equations 3 and 4) the conditions….”; We then derive (equations 3–5) the conditions….” 

Words used as variables are roman and capped headline style: Environmental Impact = Population × Affluence × Technology 

Single-letter variables and most constants are italic, but single letters used as variables (usually capped) may be roman if they stand for economic terms (population, cost, etc.), especially if combined with multiletter terms.


Numbers, Numerals, and Unit Quantities Leave data in their original units. Do not, for example, convert 2 miles to 3.218 kilometers. However, please provide conversion factors to common metric units (or vice versa) 


Spell out one through ten; numerals for 11 and up. 

Spell out ordinals through tenth; use numerals for 11th and up except for names of centuries, which should be spelled out (CMS 8.40).  

For dates in the text, follow the author, but be consistent: 1 May 2000 or May 1, 2000. 

For dates in the reference list, use European style: 10 January 2000. 

A.M., P.M., A.D. 1066, 336 B.C. (small caps, periods, closed up) 

Spell out any number that begins a sentence.  

SI and American/English units are acceptable. 

Use of a slash or reciprocal notation for compound units is acceptable, but be consistent within each article.  

Do not use middot in units. 

Include leading zero in all quantities less than one. 

threefold, tenfold, 15-fold 

$1.2 million, US$0.91, C$1.40, €0.85 million, DM 3.55, Fr 0.75 

5 million, 1.2 million 


1% to 10% 


35°F, 35°C 

10.5 kg/L 

msec, sec, hr, min, day, wk, mo, yr, ton, MMT (million metric tons), Mt (million tons); kWh;  

Molecular weight is dimensionless 

Description (Short): 
JIE Style Guide for Accepted Manuscripts