Volume 1, Issue 3: Special Issue on the Industrial Ecology of Paper and Wood
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Top Left: An Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) seed tree on the Quabbin watershed lands in central Massachusetts, USA. The forest management operations on the Quabbin Watershed are the first to be certified on US public lands by the SmartWood program. Tress of this size and quality are sustainably harvested for specialty products such as wide floor boards otherwise unavailable for the restoration of historic buildings and homes. Photo credit: Paul K. Barten.
Top Right: Hull sawmill in northeastern Connecticut, USA that uses computer-controlled saws to increase the yield from hardwood purchased from non-industrial private forests (NIPFs). High value small sized pieces of lumber are cut from ends of planks otherwise destined to be chipped for pulp. Lumber is shipped to Asia and Europe for use in parquet floors and other products. Photo credit: Concho Minik.
Center: Millar Western's pulp mill in Meadow Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada. This facility produces totally chlorine free (TCF) bleached chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp (BCTMP) with zero effluent discharge. Photo credit: Merle Prosofsky Photography Ltd.
Bottom: Waste paper sorting at Resource Recovery Systems, Inc. materials recovery facility (MRF) in Sarasota, Floriday, USA. Photo credit: Elizabeth Karter.