How to Prepare Figures

The publisher's preferred formats for figures are Portable Document Format (PDF), Tagged Image Format (TIFF), and Encapsulated PostScript (EPS). Photographic images should be saved as TIFF files with a resolution of at least 300 dots per inch (dpi), while line art should be saved as PDF or EPS files with a resolution of at least 600 dpi.

If you choose PDF, print the file to Adobe PDF. It is best if you change the "Default Settings" under printer properties labeled as "Adobe PDF Settings" to the "Press Quality" option. If you have any problems creating either a high-quality PDF or TIFF file for each of your images, please contact the editorial office (

When preparing your final figure files, please note that the figure number and figure caption should be removed from each figure before it is converted to PDF or saved as a TIFF file (figure numbers can be indicated in the filename, and figure captions should all be listed in the main Word manuscript file).

The number of figures and tables should not total more than eight (i.e. figures + tables ≤ 8) unless permission to exceed that number has been obtained from the editor. Additional figures and tables are welcome as supplementary material posted on the journal’s website.