How to Prepare Figures

Preparing Figures

The publisher’s preferred formats for figures are Portable Document Format (PDF), Tagged Image Format (TIFF), and Encapsulated PostScript (EPS). Photographic images should be saved as TIFF files with a resolution of at least 300 dots per inch (dpi), while line art should be saved as PDF or EPS files with a resolution of at least 600 dpi.  (See for more detailed instructions from the publisher.)

If you choose PDF, print the file to Adobe PDF. It is best if you change the “Default Settings” under printer properties labeled as “Adobe PDF Settings” to the “Press Quality” option. If you have any problems creating either a high-quality PDF or TIFF file for each of your images, please contact the editorial office (

When preparing your final figure files, please note that the figure number and figure caption should be removed from each figure before it is converted to PDF or saved as a TIFF file (figure numbers can be indicated in the filename, and figure captions should all be listed in the main Word manuscript file).

The number of figures and tables should not total more than eight (i.e. figures + tables ≤ 8) unless permission to exceed that number has been obtained from the editor. Additional figures and tables are welcome as supplementary material posted on the journal’s website. 

Instructions on Using Subscripts or Superscripts in Figures

If your figure contains elements that should be in subscript or superscript (e.g., as in “m³” or “CO₂”), please ensure that these elements appear properly subscripted or superscripted in the final figure. If you are using MS Excel to create your chart, Unicode characters can be used to achieve this result (see below). Simply find the needed Unicode character in the table below, copy and paste it into your Excel spreadsheet, and create your chart; the subscripted or superscripted characters should appear properly in the resulting chart. The table below includes the following Unicode (sub- and superscripted) characters that can be copied and pasted: numerals 0 through 9, plus sign, minus sign, equals sign, and left & right parentheses.


⁰ ¹ ² ³ ⁴ ⁵ ⁶ ⁷ ⁸ ⁹ ⁺ ⁻ ⁼ ⁽ ⁾


₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ ₅ ₆ ₇ ₈ ₉ ₊ ₋ ₌ ₍ ₎

For a more complete set of Unicode subscript and superscript characters from which to copy and paste (including most roman letters), see the Wikipedia article “Subscript and Superscript” (“Unicode” section at If you are encountering any trouble with this process, requests for assistance can be made to