Top Left: “World’s Largest Hog Farm” at Fontant Farms in San Bernardino, California, USA in the 1920s. 400-600 tons per day of food waste transported in steel gondola cars from restaurants and hotels in Los Angeles were fed to 46,000 hogs on 220 acres. Cleaning water from feeding floors was used to irrigate crops, manure and uneaten garbage was dried, bones and ferrous materials recovered and residues were ground and sold as fertilizer, presaging modern efforts at industrial symbiosis. Photo credit: San Bernardino County Museum.
Top Right: Rooftop garden on factory in Tokyo. The Tokyo Metro Government urges new public and commercial buildings erected on more than 250 square meters and 1000 square meters of land, respectively, to “green” a minimum of 20% of any flat rof area in order to reduce urban heat island effects, energy consumption, and air pollution. Photo credit: Tokyo Metro Government.
Center Left: Auto body being dipped in lead-free anti-corrosion coating developed by PPG Industries. Enviro-Prime 200 cationic electro-deposition coating substitutes yttrium for lead and also reduces emissions of volatile organic compounds and cures at lower temperatures, saving energy and costs. Photo credit: PPG Industries.
Bottom Right: A Volkswagen beetle used by Zipcar, Inc., a car-sharing company in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Zi-pcars are parked throughout the Boston area and in Washington, D.C. The service provides personal transportation, replacing as many as ten privately-owned vehicles for every Zipcar, reducing parking requirements, and can reduce passenger miles traveled as well. Photo credit: Mark Ostow. http://www.zipcar.com/
Bottom Left: Flue gas desulfurization equipment at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company’s Bailly Generating Station electric power plant. Removal of sulfur dioxide from stack gases creates synthetic gypsum, which is used to make wallboard in lieu of mined gypsum. Photo credit: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.